Sunday, March 11, 2018

Noah’s Festivals of the Seasons


In c. 3238 BC, at the Feast of Weeks (Pentecost) our Father in Heaven made covenants with Noah after the flood had subsided. The covenant or agreement was that the seasons would not cease.

“And Noe built an altar to the Lord, and took of all clean beasts, and of all clean birds, and offered a whole burnt-offering upon the altar. And the Lord God smelled a smell of sweetness, and the Lord God having considered, said, I will not any more curse the earth, because of the works of men, because the imagination of man is intently bent upon evil things from his youth, I will not therefore any more smite all living flesh as I have done. All the days of the earth, seed and harvest, cold and heat, summer and spring, shall not cease by day or night.” Gen 8:20-22

Here are the definitions of the original Greek words used in the Septuagint that were promised not to cease:
·         Seed is σπέρμα (spérma) meaning seed or semen. Seed is to sow seed and can be either to sow new plants or sow new offspring (child).
·         Cold is ψῦχος (psûkhos) meaning cold. Cold is a low temperature.
·         Spring is έαρ (éar) meaning spring and is synonyms with άνοιξη (ánoixi) which also means spring. ánoixis is dervide from the word opening.
·         Day is ἡμέρᾱ (hēmérā) meaning day.  It is a lengthened form of  ἦμαρ (êmar) meaning heat.
·         Night is νῠ́ξ (núx) meaning night.  Night is the period between sunset and sunrise. 

As part of the covenant Noah and his descendants was commanded by our Father in Heaven to multiply and fill the earth:

And God blessed Noe and his sons, and said to them, Increase and multiply, and fill the earth and have dominion over it.” Gen 9:1 

Here are the definitions of the original Greek words used in the Septuagint that were used in this command:

Our Father in Heaven goes on to say that this covenant is to last forever and that when we see a rainbow we are to remember this covenant:

But do ye increase and multiply, and fill the earth, and have dominion over it. And God spoke to Noe, and to his sons with him, saying, And behold I establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after you, and with every living creature with you, of birds and of beasts, and with all the wild beasts of the earth, as many as are with you, of all that come out of the ark. And I will establish my covenant with you and all flesh shall not any more die by the water of the flood, and there shall no more be a flood of water to destroy all the earth. And the Lord God said to Noe, This is the sign of the covenant which I set between me and you, and between every living creature which is with you for perpetual generations. I set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a sign of covenant between me and the earth. And it shall be when I gather clouds upon the earth, that my bow shall be seen in the cloud. And I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you, and between every living soul in all flesh, and there shall no longer be water for a deluge, so as to blot out all flesh.” Gen 9:7-15

The book of Jubilees provides more information regarding the covenant that our Father in Heaven made with Noah and his descendants.  It states Noah’s descendants were to celebrate the first day of the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth months which use to be the first day of the beginning of each season on the old Enoch calendar. These are celebrations based on the sun’s position on earth. 
And on the new moon [sic.. 1st day] of the first month, and on the new moon [sic.. 1st day] of the fourth month, and on the new moon [sic.. 1st day] of the seventh month, and on the new moon [sic.. 1st day] of the tenth month are the days of remembrance, and the days of the seasons in the four divisions of the year. These are written and ordained as a testimony for ever. And Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations for ever, so that they have become thereby a memorial unto him. And on the new moon [sic.. 1st day] of the first month he was bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the earth became dry and he opened (the ark) and saw the earth. And on the new moon [sic.. 1st day] of the fourth month the mouths of the depths of the abyss beneath were closed. And on the new moon [sic.. 1st day] of the seventh month all the mouths of the abysses of the earth were opened, and the waters began to descend into them. And on the new moon [sic.. 1st day] of the tenth month the tops of the mountains were seen, and Noah was glad. And on this account he ordained them for himself as feasts for a memorial for ever, and thus are they ordained. And they placed them on the heavenly tablets, each had thirteen weeks; from one to another (passed) their memorial, from the first to the second, and from the second to the third, and from the third to the fourth. And all the days of the commandment will be two and fifty weeks of days, and (these will make) the entire year complete. Thus it is engraven and ordained on the heavenly tablets. And there is no neglecting (this commandment) for a single year or from year to year. And command thou the children of Israel that they observe the years according to this reckoning- three hundred and sixty-four days, and (these) will constitute a complete year, and they will not disturb its time from its days and from its feasts; for everything will fall out in them according to their testimony, and they will not leave out any day nor disturb any feasts. But if they do neglect and do not observe them according to His commandment, then they will disturb all their seasons and the years will be dislodged from this (order), [and they will disturb the seasons and the years will be dislodged] and they will neglect their ordinances. And all the children of Israel will forget and will not find the path of the years, and will forget the new moons, and seasons, and sabbaths and they will go wrong as to all the order of the years. For I know and from henceforth will I declare it unto thee, and it is not of my own devising; for the book (lies) written before me, and on the heavenly tablets the division of days is ordained, lest they forget the feasts of the covenant and walk according to the feasts of the Gentiles after their error and after their ignorance. For there will be those who will assuredly make observations of the moon -how (it) disturbs the seasons and comes in from year to year ten days too soon. For this reason the years will come upon them when they will disturb (the order), and make an abominable (day) the day of testimony, and an unclean day a feast day, and they will confound all the days, the holy with the unclean, and the unclean day with the holy; for they will go wrong as to the months and sabbaths and feasts and jubilees. For this reason I command and testify to thee that thou mayst testify to them; for after thy death thy children will disturb (them), so that they will not make the year three hundred and sixty-four days only, and for this reason they will go wrong as to the new moons and seasons and sabbaths and festivals, and they will eat all kinds of blood with all kinds of flesh. Jubilees 6:22-38

Note: Please see this article that shows the words ‘new moon’ should not be in the text above and are a translation error.  Our seasons are dictated by the circuit of the sun and not the moon.   The moons are for signs only.

According to the book of Jubilees, Enoch, and the Dead Sea Scrolls the old calendar was arranged as shown below.  The first day of the first, forth, seventh, and tenth months were the first day of each season and quarter of the year.

Calendar legend:
·         NM – New Moon
·         G-SA – The Sabbath date on our current Gregorian calendar.
·         Red text – Holy feast day where no work is to be performed other than the work required to have the feast; however, the Sabbath is rest only.
·         Colored text – feast day

Our Father in Heaven wanted us to celebrate the first day of each season to ensure that we keep track of time accurately.  Tracking time accurately allows us to keep all his feast day on the correct date.

Tracking Time

Noah’s descendants implemented methods to track the sun, moon and the stars based instructions received from Noah’s grandfather Enoch. These instructions are documented in the book of Enoch and were given to Enoch by the angel Uriel. The sun and stars are used for telling time.  The moon is used as a sign and tool that also helped ensure the calendar was correct since the cycle of the moon repeats itself every three years as shown on the Dead Sea Scroll calendar. 
Noah’s descendants tracked the equinoxes and the solstices since they occur at the end of each quarter. This was verification that the new season or quarter would be starting.  They were not to actually celebrate the day of the equinox and solstices these were just time keeping tools to ensure their calendar was correct.  As stated above they were to celebrate the first day of each quarter.  I believe the reason they were not to celebrate the equinoxes and solstice is because the equinoxes occur on different dates around the world depending on where you live.  Today our calendars give the date for the equinoxes and solstice based on universal time and not local time.  This is also true for the new moon and full moon dates on our printed calendar are also given based on universal time and not local time.

So by viewing the table you can see why it would be correct to observe the start of spring, summer, fall and winter festivals based on the first day of each quarter since the calendar was intended for the entire world calendar keeping system.  All of Noah’s descendants should celebrate the same day and they were told that their dominion was the world in Jubilees above and in Genesis:

And God blessed them, saying, Increase and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the seas and flying creatures of heaven, and all the cattle and all the earth, and all the reptiles that creep on the earth.” Sep Gen 1:28  

The variances of date and time of the equinoxes and solstice have to do with the tilt of the earth sometimes called the circuit of the sun.

In the sun he has set his tabernacle; and he comes forth as a bridegroom out of his chamber: he will exult as a giant to run his course. His going forth is from the extremity of heaven, and his circuit to the other end of heaven: and no one shall be hidden from his heat.” Psa 19:5-6

The Enoch calendar given to Noah is based on the latitude of the earth and the sun’s course is between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.  The equator is the center point of the sun’s course.  Locations in the extreme north or south experience the season differently than those on the equator; therefore these extreme locations do not have equal seasons of 91 days each described in the book of Enoch and the book of Jubilees agrees stating 13 weeks for each season.

The circle on the Celtic cross represents the earth and the inner circle represents the sun’s direct impact of its rays shining on the earth between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.  The Sun reaches the observer's zenith when it is 90° above the horizon, and this only happens between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. So the sun’s tabernacle is between these two tropic lines and it where the sun runs its course.  The cross itself represents the meridian and the equator. If you place the cross on the equator the seasons are 91 days each like Enoch said.  There is a very ancient astronomical observatory in Ecuador called Monte Catequilla where the calculation is perfect and many believe this location is the true ‘middle of the world’.  The GPS location is 0°00'00.0"N 78°25'43.3"W.  Monte Catequilla has alignments to the equinoxes and solstices.

Monte Catequilla is the true ‘middle of the earth’ for determining the equinoxes and solstices since it meet these requirements:  The equinoxes and solstices are on the 91st day of each quarter and fall on a Tuesday.  The sun was created on the fourth day of the week, which is now called Wednesday (Gen 1:16); therefore the 91st day of the first quarter would fall on a Tuesday (see calendar below & DSS calendar).  The New Year must consistently begin in the spring on a Wednesday so that the Sabbath day is on Saturday and so the weekly cycle of seven days is never broken.  Our Sabbath day must continue to be in agreement with our Father in Heavens Sabbath day which is the seventh day (Gen 2:1-3).  According to the Dead Sea Scroll Temple Calendar on the first day of the year (first day of spring), every third year, there must be a full moon and on March 20, 2019 there will be a full moon (DSS, lunar cycle 1)

Below shows how the earth spin making the sun’s zenith change during the year.

Today we define a year by the earth’s orbit around the sun which is called a topical year.  When the year makes one complete orbit around the sun and gets back to it starting position that is called a tropical year and that takes 365.25 days.  Enoch’s year was based on the sun’s position on the equator.  When the sun reaches its zenith on the equator during March a new year of 364 days begins.

Ancient Time Tracking Tools

Noah’s descendants invented the ancient staff and cross to measure angles of the sun, moon and stars to ensure their calendar was correct so that they celebrated the feast days on the correct dates.

During biblical times they used a staff to identify cardinal directions using the sun and stars similar to how we use a compass today.  Here are a few examples.

Jacob Israel had a staff which he brought with him as he crossed the Jordan River:

And Jacob said, God of my father Abraam, and God of my father Isaac, O Lord, thou art he that said to me, Depart quickly to the land of thy birth, and I will do thee good. Let there be to me a sufficiency of all the justice and all the truth which thou hast wrought with thy servant; for with this my staff I passed over this Jordan, and now I am become two camps.” Sep Gen 32:9-10 
By faith Jacob, when he was dying, blessed each of the sons of Joseph; and worshipped, leaning upon the top of his staff.” ASV Hebrews 11:21

Judah had a staff:

And as they were bringing her, she sent to her father-in-law, saying, I am with child by the man whose these things are; and she said, See whose is this ring and bracelet and staff.” Sep Gen 38:25   

King David found comfort by owning a staff:

Yea, even if I should walk in the midst of the shadow of death, I will not be afraid of evils: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff, these have comforted me.” Sep Psa 23:4 

Jesus tells the apostles to not take their staff when he sent them out to preach the gospel:

And he called the twelve together, and gave them power and authority over all demons, and to cure diseases. And he sent them forth to preach the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick. And he said unto them, Take nothing for your journey, neither staff, nor wallet, nor bread, nor money; neither have two coats.” ASV Luke 9:1-3

The Greeks had an ancient computer they developed to compute the motion of astronomical positions and eclipses for calendar and astrological uses called the Antikythera mechanism.  It was found on the bottom of the ocean as part of a ship wreck.  They believe that it is dated to about 100 BC.  This mechanism also had the names of the constellation on it. It had the ability to tell time based on the sun, moon and stars.

The children of Noah built precise time tracking mounds and hieroglyphs to track the angle of the sun in relationship to the earth.   

Chaco Canyon is only a 3 hour drive away from the Los Lunas stone which reflects the 10 commandments in Paleo-Hebrew.  This 10 commandment stone is the oldest in the world and it does have a spiral hieroglyph next to it. 

Only the Children of Noah would have cared about precise time tracking to ensure their feast days were on the correct dates.

The Sidereal Day verses the Tropical Day

Noah’s descendants’ tracked time based upon a sidereal day not a tropical day.  Here are the definitions of each:

Sidereal Day

A measurement of time relative to the position of the stars and relating to a measurement of time relative to the point of the vernal equinox.  A sidereal day is approximately 23 hours, 56 minutes.

Topical Day

The Tropical Day is based on the Topical Year of 365.25 day.  A civil day is used that starts midnight: this is near the time of the lower culmination of the Sun on the central meridian of the time zone. Such a day may be referred to as a calendar day. A day is commonly divided into 24 hours of 60 minutes, with each minute composed of 60 seconds.


The time difference between a sidereal day and civil day is 24 hours.

·         The civil day is 4 minutes longer than a sidereal day.  4 minutes x 364 equals 1456 minutes a year.  1456 minutes divided by 60 minutes equals 24.26 hours.

·         The civil day is 4 minutes longer than a sidereal day.  4 minutes x 365 equals 1460 minutes a year.  1460 minutes divided by 60 minutes equals 24.33 hours. 

Wheel of the Year

The Celtic people had a sun cross that was also called the Celtic cross that was used to tell time and cardinal directions as discussed above.  Plus they also had the ‘Wheel of the Year’ that reflected the calendar they used.   These ‘Wheel of the Year’ calendars were also established on the ground to track the sun’s movement and the time of the year.  In North America they are called Medicine Wheels and in Europe they are called a Stonehenge’s.  All of these could track time based on the position of the sun and stars. Some also tracked the moon.

The Medicine Wheels and Stonehenge’s of the world are further proof that Noah’s descendants knew how to track time very early and built monuments to prove it. The Majorville Cairn and Medicine Wheel site in Alberta Canada dates all the way back to 3200 BC; therefore was built shortly after the Noah’s flood event.

The Celtic Wheel of the year is organized just like Enoch’s calendar says it should be organized.  It has four equal quarters of the year representing the four seasons. It is tracking the sun and the stars as described by Enoch.

Noah’s Descendants Quarterly Festivals

 Noah’s descendants did multiply and move to various places on the earth taking the old traditions for the four quarterly festivals with them.  After establishing new homes, they also developed new traditions that added to the old traditions.  From the book of Jubilees (above), here is the original days that were to be celebrated based on the events of Noah’s flood:

[sic.. 1st day] of the first month he was bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the earth became dry and he opened (the ark) and saw the earth. And on the new moon [sic.. 1st day] of the fourth month the mouths of the depths of the abyss beneath were closed. And on the new moon [sic.. 1st day] of the seventh month all the mouths of the abysses of the earth were opened, and the waters began to descend into them. And on the new moon [sic.. 1st day] of the tenth month the tops of the mountains were seen, and Noah was glad.

These dates may be of prophetical significance during the tribulation and Jesus’ return:

The gathering of the grape harvest occurs in autumn when the final harvest will occur and the expiration of sin.  The grapes (sin: transgression of the law) will be receding on earth just like the flood waters.

And another angel came out from the altar, who had power over fire; and he cried with a loud voice to him that had the sharp sickle, saying: Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vineyard of the earth; because the grapes thereof are ripe. And the angel thrust in his sharp sickle into the earth, and gathered the vineyard of the earth, and cast it into the great press of the wrath of God: And the press was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the press, up to the horses' bridles, for a thousand and six hundred furlongs.”  DR Rev 14:18-20

Sour grapes are a corrupted form of the laws of Moses:

In those days they shall say no more, The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge: for every one shall die for his own iniquity; every man that eateth the sour grapes, his teeth shall be set on edge.”  Darby’s Jer 31:29-30

And the word of the Lord came to me, saying: What is the meaning? That you use among you this parable as a proverb in the land of Israel, saying: The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the teeth of the children are set on edge. As I live, saith the Lord God, this parable shall be no more to you a proverb in Israel. Behold all souls are mine: as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine: the soul that sinneth, the same shall die.” DR Eze 18:1-4

We are to take HIS words and eat them meaning thoroughly understand HIS true words:

“And I went to the angel, saying unto him, that he should give me the book. And he said to me: Take the book, and eat it up: and it shall make thy belly bitter, but in thy mouth it shall be sweet as honey. And I took the book from the hand of the angel, and ate it up: and it was in my mouth, sweet as honey: and when I had eaten it, my belly was bitter.”  DR Rev 10:9-10

Today we are told these are pagan festivals; however that just means rural people celebrated them.   The old Latin definition just meant pertaining to people that lived in rural areas or in the countryside. The country people wanted to continue these festivals; however the Constantine did not want the country or pagan people to do so. The persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire began late during the reign of Constantine the Great, when he ordered the pillaging and the tearing down of some temples (about 328 AD). The first anti-pagan laws started with Constantine's son Constantius II. These festivals have been labeled pagan ever since.  Today our new English definition the word pagan means heathen and some of the things done today at these festivals would be considered heathen since the festivals have been corrupted. People are continually worried about whether they should celebrate pagan festivals or not.  The funny thing is that the word pagan is not in our bible.  Our bibles do not give us any warning against pagans.  Our bible does warn us about heathens though.

Hear ye the word which the Lord hath spoken concerning you, O house of Israel. Thus saith the Lord: Learn not according to the ways of the Gentiles: and be not afraid of the signs of heaven, which the heathens fear.”  DR Jer 10:1   [Gentilefrom the Latin word 'gentilis' meaning from the same gens or family. Refers to Jacob Israel's descendants that were scattered away due to misbehavior]

They provoked him also at the waters of contradiction: and Moses was afflicted for their sakes: because they exasperated his spirit. And he distinguished with his lips. They did not destroy the nations of which the Lord spoke unto them. And they were mingled among the heathens, and learned their works.”  DR Psalms 105:32-35

For dates of each of these four season festivals, please see this page.  Holy Feast Days of Israel 

Spring Festival & New Year’s Day

The Spring Festival and New Year’s Day was celebrated on the same day.  The first day of spring is when the earth comes to life again with flowers blooming, the grass is green again and the trees have leaves again.  These were signs of fertility and rebirth.  They did celebrate fertility since they were instructed to multiply. Symbols of fertility and rebirth are lilies, hyacinth flower, and eggs.  These activities later became merged with Easter that should be only the celebration of Jesus’ resurrection.   It was this day when Noah saw the earth after the flood and it is when we see the earth coming to life again and the land becomes fertile for raising crops. 
1st day of the first month he was bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the earth became dry and he opened (the ark) and saw the earth.

Summer Festival

This is the time of the year that the days begin to get shorter.  The Summer Festival seems to be held Memorial Weekend now.  This time of the year is a popular time for wedding which his honoring the agreement to multiply.  Traditionally picnics were held. It was this day that the earth was filled with water during Noah’s flood.

1st day of the fourth month the mouths of the depths of the abyss beneath were closed.

Fall Festival & Feast of Trumpets

The Fall Festival is to be held the same day as the Feast of Trumpets.  It was the day the flood waters started descending; therefore, Noah’s situation on the ark was half over at this time.  It became the day to remember the trumpet. We are to remember the trumpet and use it at the beginning of Holy Days plus to call out to our Father in Heaven during times of war.  It also marks the time when the final harvest of the year will be performed.   Today we celebrate Labor Day instead of this important festival.
1st day of the seventh month all the mouths of the abysses of the earth were opened, and the waters began to descend into them.  Jubilees

Winter Festival

This is the time of year that the days begin to become longer.  The only trees bearing leaves are the evergreen trees which was a symbol of life.  This was a time for bonfires to keep warm.  The traditions for this festival later became part of the Feast of the Dedication (also called the Festival of Lights or Saturnalia) celebration and then later merged with our Christmas traditions.  In Germany this festival was called Yule.  This is when Noah could finally see the top of the mountains was glad.

1st day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains were seen, and Noah was glad.


These were important festivals that should have been kept to that we would remember to keep the correct calendar.  According to Jubilees (above) it was important to keep the dates so that our festivals would not be considered unclean.  Plus it would have helped us to remember the history of our people and the importance place on fertility and keeping Noah’s seed alive and strong.  Next time you see the rainbow remembers our Father in Heaven’s covenant made with Noah that the seasons will always stay in place just as they were designed.  It is our incorrect calendar that we use today is the issue.  It is adding days and we are losing time as Enoch stated in Chapter 79:

In those days Uriel answered and said to me, Behold, I have showed thee all things, O Enoch;  And all things have I revealed to thee. Thou seest the sun, the moon, and those which conduct the stars of heaven, which cause all their operations, seasons, and arrivals to return. In the days of sinners the years shall be shortened.  Their seed shall be backward in their prolific soil; and everything done on earth shall be subverted, and disappear in its season. The rain shall be restrained, and heaven shall stand still. In those days the fruits of the earth shall be late, and not flourish in their season; and in their season the fruits of the trees shall be withholden. The moon shall change its laws, and not be seen at its proper period. But in those days shall heaven be seen; and barrenness shall take place in the borders of the great chariots in the west. Heaven shall shine more than when illuminated by the orders of light; while many chiefs among the stars of authority shall err, perverting their ways and works. Those shall not appear in their season, who command them, and all the classes of the stars shall be shut up against sinners. The thoughts of those who dwell on earth shall transgress within them; and they shall be perverted in all their ways. They shall transgress, and think themselves gods; while evil shall be multiplied among them.  And punishment shall come upon them, so that all of them shall be destroyed.” Enoch 79

The table below shows how the old Julian calendar date compares to our current date on the Gregorian calendar.  The Julian calendar looked more like the Enoch calendar and was more accurate.  Today astronomers still use the Julian calendar because it more accurate.   When our calendar says it is March 1st it is really February 17th . Today we are told it is climate change.

More Information and sources:

Rampart House, Canada:
Monte Catequilla in Ecuador is an ancient pre-Incas astronomical observatory on the equator that is said to be the ‘middle of the earth’.
The earth’s exact equator In traditional cultures and in antiquity other epochs were used. In ancient Egypt days were reckoned from sunrise to sunrise, following a morning epoch. This may be related to the fact that the Egyptians regulated their year by the heliacal rising of the star Sirius, a phenomenon which occurs in the morning just before dawn.
Irish myths Samhain         

Friday, March 2, 2018

The Feast of Purification


The Feast of Purim is held is held currently in the month of March however on the old Roman calendar this feast was originally held in February which means purification.  Purim comes from the Latin word pūrum which means to cleans or purify.  The bible calls this feast the Feast of Purim and the Romans called it the Feast of Expiation or Purification (Feralis).  The original biblical feast was a three day feast.

The table below compares these the biblical feast to the Roman feasts to show they are the same feasts; however due to calendar changes these feast are no longer held on the same dates.

Jesus cleaned the temple of the money changers on about March 30th which was March 10th or Abib 10 on the old calendar.  Also the biblical events in Exodus regarding the plagues of Egypt all happened prior to Passover which is normally observed on April 3rd each year which was March 14th or Abib 14th on the old calendar.  Both of these events were an act of purification or cleansing that occurred shortly after the above event surrounding Purim.


In 463 BC, Esther, a descendant of Benjamin, became Queen and wife of the Persian King Artaxerxes (Ahasuerus) I Longimanus.  She was raised by her uncle Mordecai because both of her parents had died. Prior Esther becoming Queen there had not been an Israelite on the throne since King Zedekiah in 586 BC. 

Now there was a Judean in the city Susa, and his name was Mardochaeus (Mordecai), the son of Jairus, the son of Semeias, the son of Cisaeus, of the tribe of Benjamin; who had been brought a prisoner from Jerusalem, which Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon had carried into captivity. And he had a foster child, daughter of Aminadab his father's brother, and her name was Esther; and when her parents were dead, he brought her up for a wife for himself: and the damsel was beautiful.” Sep Est 2:5-7 

“(198) So when a great number of these virgins were gathered together, there was found a damsel in Babylon, whose parents were both dead, and she was brought up with her uncle Mordecai, for that was her uncle's name. This uncle was of the tribe of Benjamin, and was one of the principal persons among the Judeans. (199) Now it proves that this damsel, whose name was Esther, was the most beautiful of all the rest, and that the grace of her countenance drew the eyes of the spectators principally upon her:” Antiquities 11.6.1

Now there was a Judean in Susa whose name was Mordecai, Jair’s son. He came from the family line of Shimei and Kish; he was a Benjaminite. He had been taken into exile away from Jerusalem by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. Mordecai had a foster child named Esther, a daughter of his uncle Aminadab. When her pares died, Mordecai had taken her and raised her to become his wife. The girl was lovely to look at.”  Additions to Esther 2:5-7

It was during the reign of Persian King Artaxerxes and Queen Esther that the remaining Israelite captives were allowed to return to Jerusalem.  Also during this time the Mordecai had victory over the Amalekites and when the feast of Purim was declared by Queen Esther.  According to scripture, King Cyrus would lead the building of the temple in Jerusalem.  Darius and Arthasastha (Artaxerxes) were Cyrus’ predecessors to the throne of Persia.

Thus saith the Lord God to my anointed Cyrus, whose right hand I have held, that nations might be obedient before him; and I will break through the strength of kings; I will open doors before him, and cities shall not be closed.” Sep Isa 45:1 

And the elders of the Judeans and the Levites built, at the prophecy of Aggaeus the prophet, and Zacharias the son of Addo: and they built up, and finished it, by the decree of the God of Israel, and by the decree of Cyrus, and Darius, and Arthasastha, kings of the Persians.” Sep Ezr 6:14 

This timeline is to show how the events took place and who was in control of Jerusalem at the time.
External Empires
Power In Control of Judea
Babylon Empire
605 BC
Nebuchadnezzar the Great becomes king of Babylon
2 Kings 24:1
Babylon Empire
597 BC
Zedekiah becomes king of Judea
2 King 24:18
Babylon Empire
586 BC
Fall of Jerusalem, King Zedekiah, the tribe of Judah his sons of Phares & tribe of Benjamin, some Levites, Ephraim, and Manasse were taken captive to Babylon
Jer 52:28
1 Esd 1:53-55
1 Chr 9
Babylon Empire
559 BC
Cyrus II the Great becomes king of Babylon
2 Chr 36:22
Isa 45:1
Persian Empire
539 BC
Fall of Babylon
Jer 51:60
Persian Empire
538 BC
Edict of Cyrus issued
2 Chr 36:22-23
Ezra 1:1-2
Ezra 6:3
Persian Empire
522 BC
Return of Zerubbabel and Mordecai to Jerusalem
1 Chr 9
Persian Empire
521 BC
Darius I the Great, a Mede, becomes king of Persia
The Medes are descendants of Madai who was Japheth’s son. Japheth is son of Noah.
Dan 9:1
Antiquities 1.5
Gen 10:2
Ezra 6:12
Persian Empire
515 BC
2nd Temple Built in Judea
Ezra 6:14-15
Persian Empire
586 BC
Xerxes, son of Darius, becomes king of Persia
Antiquities 11.5.1
Persian Empire
464 BC
Cyrus son of Xerxes, who was also called Artaxerxes (Ahasuerus) I Longimanus, becomes king of Persia.
He lived in the providence of Elam city of Shushan (Susa). During his reign the whole nation of Israel became endangered of perishing.
Ezra 4:7
Antiquities 11.6.1
Tob 14:15
Persian Empire
463 BC
Esther, of the tribe of Benjamin, becomes Queen and the wife of king Artaxerxes of Persia
Est 2:7
Est 2:16-18
Antiquities 11.6.2
Persian Empire
452 BC
Mordecai, of the tribe of Benjamin, was crowned viceroy to king Artaxerxes of Persia after defeating Haman an Amalekite and descendant of Esau.
Est 3:17, 8:15, 9:10, 10:3, Antiquities 11.6.5 & 11.6.11, Exo 17:16
1 Chr 34:35-36
Persian Empire

The Feast of Purim was declared
Est 9:20-32
Antiquities 11.6.12
Persian Empire
457 BC
During the reign of King Artaxerxes & Queen Esther, Ezra (Esdras) returns to Jerusalem with many other Israelites.
Ezra 7:1, Ezra 8
1 Esd 8:1, 2 Esd 1:2

Persian Empire
444 BC
During the reign of King Artaxerxes & Queen Esther, Nehemiah returns to Jerusalem and becomes ruler.
Neh 2:1, 5:14
Macedonian (Greek)
336 BC
Alexander the Great, the Macedonian becomes king of Greece.  The people were known as Kittim.
1 Mac 1:1
Antiquities 11.8.1
Macedonian (Greek)
334 BC
Alexander conquers Persia during the reign of Darius III
1 Mac 1:1-3

Macedonian (Greek)
333 BC
Alexander conquers Jerusalem
1 Mac 1:3

Macedonian (Greek)
332 BC
Alexander conquers Egypt
1 Mac 1:3

323 BC
Ptolemy I Sater becomes king of Egypt

Antiquities 12.1.1
1 Mac 10:51
312 BC
Ptolemy takes Jerusalem
Antiquities 12.1.1
282 BC
Ptolemy II Philadelphus becomes king of Egypt
The Septuagint was translated under his direction into Koine Greek.
Antiquities 12.2.1
Seleucid Empire (Greek)
187 BC
Seleucus IV Philopotler becomes king
1 Mac 7:1
2 Mac 3:3, 4:7, 5:18, 14:1
Seleucid Empire (Greek)
168 BC
Maccabee Revolt
2 Mac
Seleucid Empire (Greek)
165 BC
Judas Maccabee becomes high Priest & Captain
Maccabee an Israelite
1 Mac 2:66, 3:11

Queen Esther’s Prayer for Mercy

Below is part of Queen Esther’s pray for mercy for herself and the Israelites that she performed before the Mordecai’s victory:

Now, Lord God, King, God of Abraham, spare your people, because the enemy seeks our ruin. They desire to destroy what has been your possession from the beginning. Don’t neglect your people, whom you delivered out of Egypt. Listen to my appeal, and have mercy on the people who are your lot. Turn our mourning into feasting, that we might live and sing praises to your name, Lord. Don’t silence the voice of those who praise you.” Brenton Septuagint & the Additions to Esther, Addition C:8-10

Then she begged the Lord God of Israel: “My Lord, you alone are our king. Help me! I have no one to help me but you, and I am in great danger now. From my birth, Lord, I have heard how you chose Israel from among the rest of the nations, and our fathers from their ancestors, to be an everlasting inheritance. I have heard how you did for them all that you had promised. But now we have sinned before you, and you have delivered us into the power of our enemies because we worshipped their gods. You are just, Lord. Yet the enemies weren’t satisfied with our bitter slavery, so they shook hands with their idols in partnership. They plan to set aside the promises you made, to rob you of your inheritance, to silence those who praise you, and to stamp out the honor of your temple and your altar. They want to open the mouths of the nations to praise the wonderful deeds of useless idols so that a human king might be honored forever.” Brenton Septuagint & the Additions to Esther 13:14-21

Feast of Purim

The Feast of Purim was declared in the Book of Esther to be celebrated as a memorial forever.  It was to be celebrated to remember that they defeated their adversaries.   It was to be celebrated in the twelve month which was later named February. 

For in the twelfth month, on the thirteenth day of the month which is Adar, the letters written by the king arrived. In that day the adversaries of the Judeans perished: for no one resisted, through fear of them. For the chiefs of the satraps, and the princes and the royal scribes, honoured the Judeans; for the fear of Mardochaeus lay upon them. For the order of the king was in force, that he should be celebrated in all the kingdom. And in the city Susa the Judeans slew five hundred men: both Pharsannes, and Delphon and Phasga, and Pharadatha, and Barea, and Sarbaca, and Marmasima, and Ruphaeus, and Arsaeus, and Zabuthaeus, the ten sons of Aman the son of Amadathes the Bugaean, the enemy of the Judeans, and they plundered their property on the same day: and the number of them that perished in Susa was rendered to the king. And the king said to Esther, The Judeans have slain five hundred men in the city Susa; and how, thinkest thou, have they used them in the rest of the country? What then dost thou yet ask, that it may be done for thee? And Esther said to the king, let it be granted to the Judeans so to treat them tomorrow as to hand the ten sons of Aman. And he permitted it to be so done; and he gave up to the Judeans of the city the bodies of the sons of Aman to hang. And the Judeans assembled in Susa on the fourteenth day of Adar, and slew three hundred men, but plundered no property. And the rest of the Judeans who were in the kingdom assembled, and helped one another, and obtained rest from their enemies: for they destroyed fifteen thousand of them on the thirteenth day of Adar, but took no spoil. And they rested on the fourteenth of the same month, and kept it as a day of rest with joy and gladness. And the Judeans in the city Susa assembled also on the fourteenth day and rested [this day is a normally a Sabbath rest day]; and they kept also the fifteenth with joy and gladness. On this account then it is that the Judeans dispersed in every foreign land keep the fourteenth of Adar as a holy day with joy, sending portions each to his neighbour.” Sep Est 9:1-19 

The Triumphant of Mordecai with the blowing of trumpets painted in 1624

Queen Esther establishes the Feast of Purim to be forever memorialized in the twelve month, now called February, on the 14th and 15th.

“And Mardochaeus wrote these things in a book, and sent them to the Judeans, as many as were in the kingdom of Artaxerxes, both them that were near and them that were afar off, to establish these as joyful days, and to keep the fourteenth and fifteenth of Adar; for on these days the Judeans obtained rest from their enemies; and as to the month, which was Adar, in which a change was made for them, from mourning to joy, and from sorrow to a good day, to spend the whole of it in good days of feasting and gladness, sending portions to their friends, and to the poor. And the Judeans consented to this accordingly as Mardochaeus wrote to them, shewing how Aman the son of Amadathes the Macedonian fought against them, how he made a decree and cast lots to destroy them utterly; also how he went in to the king, telling him to hang Mardochaeus: but all the calamities he tried to bring upon the Judeans came upon himself, and he was hanged, and his children. Therefore these days were called Phrurae (now called Purim), because of the lots; (for in their language they are called Phrurae;)because of the words of this letter, and because of all they suffered on this account, and all that happened to them. And Mardochaeus established it, and the Judeans took upon themselves, and upon their seed, and upon those that were joined to them to observe it, neither would they on any account behave differently: but these days were to be a memorial kept in every generation, and city, and family, and province. And these days of the Phrurae, said they,shall be kept for ever, and their memorial shall not fail in any generation.  And queen Esther, the daughter of Aminadab, and Mardochaeus, wrote all that they had done, and the confirmation of the letter of Phrurae. And Mardochaeus and Esther the queen appointed a fast for themselves privately, even at that time also having formed their plan against their own health. And Esther established it by a command for ever, and it was written for a memorial.” Sep Esther 9:20-32

Therefore, they destroyed the lot that was bringing calamites to the people of Judea.  A number of people were destroyed collectively; therefore the city of Judea was purified.

Later in the Book of Maccabees a decree was made to memorialize the 13th day of the twelve month, now called February, as a day to remember that they defeated their adversaries.

Maccabeus seeing the coming of the multitude, and the divers preparations of armour, and the fierceness of the beasts, stretched out his hands toward heaven, and called upon the Lord that worketh wonders, knowing that victory cometh not by arms, but even as it seemeth good to him, he giveth it to such as are worthy: Therefore in his prayer he said after this manner; O Lord, thou didst send thine angel in the time of Ezekias king of Judea, and didst slay in the host of Sennacherib an hundred fourscore and five thousand: Wherefore now also, O Lord of heaven, send a good angel before us for a fear and dread unto them; And through the might of thine arm let those be stricken with terror, that come against thy holy people to blaspheme. And he ended thus. Then Nicanor and they that were with him came forward with trumpets and songs.  But Judas and his company encountered the enemies with invocation and prayer. So that fighting with their hands, and praying unto God with their hearts, they slew no less than thirty and five thousand men: for through the appearance of God they were greatly cheered. Now when the battle was done, returning again with joy, they knew that Nicanor lay dead in his harness. Then they made a great shout and a noise, praising the Almighty in their own language. And Judas, who was ever the chief defender of the citizens both in body and mind, and who continued his love toward his countrymen all his life, commanded to strike off Nicanor's head, and his hand with his shoulder, and bring them to Jerusalem. So when he was there, and called them of his nation together, and set the priests before the altar, he sent for them that were of the tower, And shewed them vile Nicanor's head, and the hand of that blasphemer, which with proud brags he had stretched out against the holy temple of the Almighty. And when he had cut out the tongue of that ungodly Nicanor, he commanded that they should give it by pieces unto the fowls, and hang up the reward of his madness before the temple. So every man praised toward the heaven the glorious Lord, saying, Blessed be he that hath kept his own place undefiled. He hanged also Nicanor's head upon the tower, an evident and manifest sign unto all of the help of the Lord. And they ordained all with a common decree in no case to let that day pass without solemnity, but to celebrate the thirtieth day of the twelfth month, which in the Syrian tongue is called Adar, the day before Mardocheus' day. “ Sep 2 Maccabees 15:21-36 

So again the city of Judea was purified by destroying collectively a lot (group) of people during the 12th month which became known as February.

Priest Judas Maccabees

In c. 94 AD, historian Flavius Josephus wrote that they Judeans were still observing the Feast of Purim:

“(293) Mordecai also wrote to the Judeans that lived in the kingdom of Artaxerxes to observe these days, and to celebrate them as festivals, and to deliver them down to posterity, that this festival might continue for all time to come, and that it might never be buried in oblivion; (294) for since they were about to be destroyed on these days by Haman they would do a right thing, upon escaping the danger in them, and on them inflicting punishment on their enemies, to observe those days, and give thanks to God on them; (295) for which cause the Judeans still keep the forementioned days, and call them days of Phurim [OR PURIM].”  Antiquities 11.6.12

Therefore, now the Feast of Purim was to begin on the 13th day just like the Roman feasts of Parentalia and Feralis.  It was a day to remember all those who had died in the Book of Esther and in 2nd Maccabees.

Saint Patrick

It is also interesting that the Christian celebration of Saint Patrick’s Day is celebrated on March 17th which was the 12th month known as February 29th on the old calendar.  On this date we celebrate Saint Patrick purifying Ireland by getting rid of snakes. In the bible snakes and serpents are references to evil people; therefore our enemies. 

February Means Purification

The Roman month Februarius was named after the Latin term februum, which means purification, via the purification ritual held on February 15th.  The purification ritual was the Feast of PurimWe do know that the Romans during the Apostle Paul’s life were of Israelite genes since Paul wrote to them.  Paul was an apostle to the gentiles.  Gentiles come from the Latin word ‘gentīlis’ which means belonging to the same family orgēns. Paul confirms the Romans are related to him in these verses:

I say then: Hath God cast away his people? God forbid. For I also am an Israelite of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. God hath not cast away his people, which he foreknew. Know you not what the scripture saith of Elias; how he calleth on God against Israel?” DR Romans 11:1-2

1913 Webster’s Dictionary

So February was also known as the month of expiation because of the Roman feast of expiation and purification was held then.  Here are the definitions of expiation and expiate:

1913 Webster’s Dictionary

So February was the month of purification by expiration just like what happened in the Books of Esther and Maccabees.

The month of February was also called historically called Kale-month which is also known as cole or cabbage.  According to The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, Volume 10, the Saxons called the month of February ‘spout-kale’.   

Eating and throwing cabbage is an old February tradition   Many European names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning "head". The late Middle English word cabbage derives from the word caboche "head".  Some verities of cabbage are called capitata which is a reference to the word head.  Slang use of the word of the word cabbage is "cabbage-head" which means a fool or stupid person and "cabbaged" means to be exhausted or, vulgarly, in a vegetative state.  In Maccabees above Nicanor’s head was decapitated and he was pronounced a blasphemer therefore he was vulgar.  The word decapitated and capitata both refer to the word head just like the word cabbage.  Therefore, the cabbage throwing tradition may have started with this event in 2nd Maccabees. 

The throwing of cabbage still occurs today on St. Patrick’s Day.  Today St. Patrick’s Day is held on March 17th; however on the biblical calendar that day would have been the twelfth month, February, on the 29th day.  Back then the twelfth month did have 31 days. Today St. Patrick’s Day is celebrated with corned beef and cabbage; therefore, cabbage has been a tradition for the month of February for a long time.  On this page an explanation of why cabbage is thrown today on St. Patrick’s Day is given stating it dates back to the potato famine that occurred in 1845; however, that cannot be true since below I have posted a newspaper article showing that in 1844 the cabbage throwing tradition had already been established. 

A Young girl that caught cabbage at the St. Patrick’s Day Parade in New Orleans.

Another reason cabbage maybe of importance is because cabbage plant is part of the Cruciferae family and comes from the word crucifer which means ‘cross bearer’ and a cross bearer is part of a religious procession.  Plants from the Cruciferae family have four petals so when the flower blooms they look like a cross.

Cross bearing flower sources:

The Festivals of Parentalia, Feralis, and Carista

According to newspaper accounts below, the Romans originally called All Saints Day - Feralis and it was celebrated February 13th to the 21st. Feralis means god or a sacred place and is associated with the dead, corpses and funerals.  The February 13th through 20th observance was called the Parentalia Festival for honoring their dead ancestors and the yearly renewal of the rite of burial.  Below are 1913 Webster’s Dictionary Definitions:

On Feralis Roman citizens were instructed to bring offerings to the tombs of their dead ancestors which consisted of at least "an arrangement of wreaths, a sprinkling of grain and a bit of salt, bread soaked in wine and violets scattered about."  The Israelites were to use salt in all of their offerings since salt purifies and cleanses naturally.  The bread soaked in wine was probably represented of the New Covenant that Jesus gave us at the Last Super.

Whatsoever sacrifice thou offerest, thou shalt season it with salt, neither shalt thou take away the salt of the covenant of thy God from thy sacrifice. In all thy oblations thou shalt offer salt.” Lev 2:13

All the firstfruits of the sanctuary which the children of Israel offer to the Lord, I have given to thee and to thy sons and daughters, by a perpetual ordinance. It is a covenant of salt for ever before the Lord, to thee and to thy sons.” Num 18:19

Do you not know that the Lord God of Israel gave to David the kingdom over Israel for ever, to him and to his sons by a covenant of salt?” 2 Chr 13:5

And he said: Bring me a new vessel, and put salt into it. And when they had brought it, He went out to the spring of the waters, and cast the salt into it, and said: Thus saith the Lord: I have healed these waters, and there shall be no more in them death or barrenness.” 2 Kings 2:20-21

Caristia was celebrated on February 22nd and was to honored family or ancestors. It followed the Parentalia, nine days of remembrance which began on February 13 and concluded with the Feralia on February 21. For the Parentalia, families visited the tombs of their ancestors and shared cake and wine both in the form of offerings and as a meal among themselves. The Feralia was a more somber occasion, a public festival of sacrifices and offerings to the Manes, the spirits of the dead who required propitiation (cover over sin). The Caristia in recognition of the family line as it continued into the present and among the living. Caristia was a day of reconciliation when disagreements were to be set aside.

From Parentalia to Caristia all temples were closed, marriages were forbidden, and "magistrates appeared without their insignia," an indication that no official business was conducted. This is because these feasts were considered a time of mourning for the dead.

February was the Last Month

Merriam-Webster dictionary states that that the last week of the year was the feast of purification. In the ancient Roman calendar March was originally the first month of the year and hence February was the last. The last weeks of the year was a time when people made up for their wrongdoings and purifications were performed. These rituals were called februa in Latin, and from them the month took its name, Februarius.  This is probably where we get the tradition of making New Year’s Resolutions since normally resolutions are to correct a wrong doing in our life.

Old Newspaper References

According to old newspapers the Feast of Purim was moved to May and then to the date we call Halloween.  I have documented this fact on this page where I provide further proof
Below are just two of the examples I found from the above link.

11/6/1848 news – All Saints Day Origin is Feralis

10/31/1919 news – Hallowe’en on New Year’s Eve 

This article agrees that Halloween use to be in February which used to be the last month of the year.


The Feast of Purim is not a feast required by the laws of Moses; however it was a feast ordained by an Israelite Queen.  The Feast of the Dedication is not a required feast by the laws of Moses either and was ordained by a Maccabee King; never the less Jesus did honor this feast by attending (John 10:22-23).

The event the ancient Israelites endured in the book of Esther and Maccabees were a hardship for them; therefore it was a time of mourning that was turned to joy.  The Feast of Purim became a time to reconcile their enemies that died sins and reconcile family disputes.  It was also a time to pay respect to our ancestors by going to their graves and leaving offerings to cover their sin.  Today it is a tradition to put flowers on the graves of our ancestors; maybe it would be better to leave grain and salt like the early Romans did.  It is a good time for us to do the same prior to starting the new biblical year that always begins on the spring equinox.

Sources & More Information

Additions to Esther reading on youtube

About Jerome the translator of the Latin Vulgate version of the bible and the Additions to Esther

Jerome translated the “Additions to the book of Esther” from the Common Septuagint 

About the “Additions to Esther”

Book of Esther included in the Origen Hexapla published in 1875 AD